Lesson 1

Your tools

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When you start learning programming in Ruby you’ll need three tools:

  • Text editor

  •  Terminal

  • Ruby runtime

As a programmer you’ll spend tons of time working with your text editor and terminal (or “in” them, as we say). It makes sense for you to learn how to use these tools, and how to customize them so they fit your taste.

There are also text editors that can be integrated into a terminal window. This means you don’t have to switch between applications. There are also online services that integrate all of this as a web application, with a nice interface in your browser.

Feel free to try all these things out, and play with them as much as you like. However, for our study groups, we have found that using the simplest tools possible, at least for a while, works best: It reduces the amount of things people need to learn in the beginning, and everyone learns the same few basic things that are required to run a Ruby program in this environment.

Text editor

For our study groups we recommend using Sublime Text as a text editor, which you can download and run on Mac OSX, Ubuntu, or Windows. This is an editor that has been specifically designed for writing code, comes with a lot of great tools, and can be easily customized.

Other text editors that might be worth looking at are Atom, Textmate 2, and, if you like to use some of the powerful oldschool tools from the early times of Unix, VIM and Emacs. These are all great editors to use.

Whatever editor you use, you want it to insert 2 spaces when you hit the “tab” key, i.e. when you want to indent your code. Make sure your editor is configured to do this.

For Sublime Text you can do the following: In the menu item “Sublime Text” go to “Preferences” and select “Settings - User”. This opens up a configuration file that you can edit just like any other file. Make sure it looks like this:

Also, we recommend enabling auto-saving your files. This will automatically save your changes when you switch to another application (like your terminal), and protect you from the mistake of forgetting to save:

Whenever you open a new file, make sure to save it with a filename that ends with .rb first. This will tell the editor that you want this to be a Ruby file. Your editor will start highlighting your code as Ruby code, and enable other Ruby specific editor features. Alternatively, select “Ruby” in the extensions menu at the bottom right.

Some keyboard shortcuts that are extremely useful to know are:

  • In order to indent or unindent a single, or multiple lines of code, select them and hit tab or shift-tabrespectively.

  • In order to comment single, or multiple lines of code, select them, and hit cmd-/ on Mac OSX, or ctrl-/ on Linux/Windows.

  • Cut out code with cmd-x, copy code with cmd-c, and paste it with cmd-v on Mac OSX, on Linux/Windows use the ctrl key instead.

Terminal

Every operating system comes with some kind of terminal application built in, and they’ll be fine to use for us.

A terminal is an application that doesn’t do much more but provide a window to run another program, called a “shell”. A shell is a text-based program, so it does not have a window, and thus needs the terminal to be run on your graphical user interface.

A shell is an interactive program that waits for you to type a command and hit enter (or “return”). It will then run the command, display any output, and then, again, sit and wait for you to type the next command.

This is how working with computers was done in early times before there was the idea of a graphical user interface with clickable icons, windows, and a mouse as an input device. Instead, everything was done by typing commands.

While this might take a little while for you to get used to, you’ll discover why many programmers feel that working with the shell helps them be so much more productive and get simple things done so much quicker than using a mouse and a graphical interface.

The default settings for most terminal applications that come built in to operating systems are quite poor, unfortunately. For example the Terminal.app on Mac OSX opens a tiny little mini window with a very small font. You want to make the window much (much!) bigger, and find the settings to pick a bigger font size. As a programmer, the terminal (along with your editor) is your new home. You want to be as comfortable reading and writing in your terminal as in any other application.

In case you are using Microsoft Windows it is highly recommended to use any kind of unix based terminal. One option is Git-Bash (https://gitforwindows.org/). However, as Ruby and Microsoft Windows are not best friends, it is even better to install the Windows Subsystem for Linux which is available here for Windows 10: https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/windows/wsl/install-win10. With this option you can install everything you need for your Ruby development under Ubuntu and use Bash as your main shell.

All commands in the following texts are unix commands and will not work in a Microsoft Windows terminal.

Once you have started the terminal program you will see your shell’s prompt, and can start typing commands. You’ll want to learn at least the command cd which allows you to navigate to a particular directory (where you have stored your code), and the command ls which lists the contents of a directory.

Also learn how to use the command line completion using tab: For example, type cd, space, and the first two or so letters of the directory you want to navigate to, then hit tab. The shell will complete the rest of the directory name for you. If nothing happens, then there are multiple directory names starting with the same few letters. In this case hit tab twice, quickly, and your shell will display a list of choices. Type the next letter and hit tab again.

Ruby runtime

The last tool you need is a Ruby runtime. This is a program that can execute Ruby code, and it is a program that can be run in your shell (much like cd and ls).

If you have some code in a file with the name hello.rb, and you have navigated to the directory where the file is saved, then you can type the following and hit enter, in order to execute the code:

This will tell the ruby runtime to interpret the contents of the file hello.rb as Ruby code, and execute it.

One can also use this program to do other things. You probably won’t need these a lot, but we think it’s good to know. You can try these by typing these commands in your terminal.

E.g. you can print out the version of the program:

Or execute Ruby code without storing it to a file:

Programming workflow

In order to do programming excercises on your computer, play around with things you learned, and write actual, useful programs you want to learn the following workflow:

  • Write some code in your text editor.

  • Save the code to a file in a particular directory. The filename should end with .rb.

  • Open your terminal.

  • Navigate to that directory using cd.

  • Execute the file using ruby.

  • Switch back and forth between the text editor and terminal, so you can make small changes in your code, and then run it through ruby to see what it does.

In order to switch back and forth between apps quickly you can use the keyboard shortcut cmd-tab on Mac OSX, and alt-tab on Ubuntu and Windows.

In your shell you can use the cursor up key to go through your last used commands: you don’t have to type ruby hello.rb again. Just hit cursor up and then enter to run it again.

Interactive Ruby

One other tool that is worth mentioning, and that comes with your Ruby runtime, is irb. You can start it by typing irb in your shell and hitting enter.

Its name is short for “Interactive Ruby Shell”, and yes, it is another kind of shell: Just like the shell running in your terminal irb is also a program that interactively waits for you to type something, and hit enter. However, since this is a Ruby shell, it will expect that you type Ruby code instead of system commands.

IRB is pretty handy for quickly trying something out, and it is a great tool for exploring the language Ruby, and things that come built in.

For example:

Terminal

he first line starts the IRB program. Notice how the “prompt” indicator changes. The prompt will look a little different depending on your system and shell configuration, but often $ is used to indicate that this is a system shell prompt, while > is used by IRB to indicate that this is an interactive Ruby shell.

The second line is a piece of Ruby code. When you type this line and hit enter then Ruby will execute the code, and print out the text “Hello world!”.

It will then also print out the return value for this statement, which in this case is nil. This is something that you can simply ignore for the time being.

On the last line you see IRB again waiting for input with a prompt.

You can exit the IRB session, and get back to your system shell, by typing exit and hitting enter. Or you can also just hit ctrl-d, which does the same thing.

Ruby For Beginners by Ruby Monstas is licensed under CC BY-SA 2.0

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